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Jewish populations in Europe

Hover your cursor over any country to see Jewish population estimates; click on any country for more information.

Understanding the terms “core” and “enlarged”

There are different definitions of who is a Jew, which makes Jewish population estimates a very complex science. In demographic terms, a “core” Jewish population includes people who self-identify as Jewish in social surveys, and do not have another monotheistic religion. It also includes people who may not recognise themselves as Jewish, but have Jewish parents and have not adopted a different religious identity. It further includes all converts to Judaism by any procedure, as well as other people who declare themselves to be Jewish even without having undergone conversion. So a "core" Jewish population overlaps with, but does not coincide with, the halachic (Jewish legal) definition of who is a Jew, or for that matter, any other normative definition.

The “enlarged” Jewish population includes the sum of (a) the “core” Jewish population; (b) all other people of Jewish parentage who, by “core” Jewish population criteria, are not currently Jewish (e.g. they have adopted another religion or otherwise opted out); and (c) all respective non-Jewish household members (spouses, children, etc.)

For a table with up-to-date counts of Jewish population sizes in all countires in Europe, click here.